It is the year 2020 and Python is the fastest growing and most popular programming language among beginners. Compared to most programming languages, the Python programming language has a relatively easier syntax to learn. This allows beginners to implement basic programming concepts such as input/output, conditionals, loops, and data structures with greater ease. The best way to grasp some confidence over a programming language and basic programming concepts is through practical applications and hence, here is a list of seven Python projects for beginners.
An Anagram is a word formed by shuffling the letters of another word. The words silent and listen are anagrams of each other. Implement an anagram game that prompts the user to guess the correct word from its given anagram. For instance, the correct answer to the anagram of hpotyn is python. The in-built module random will be helpful in implementing this project.
Concepts: Console Input/Output, Strings, Conditional & Control Flow
Advanced: Implement a scoring system based on the number of attempts taken to arrive at the correct answer.
Various forms of authentication are present everywhere. The most popular authentication method for software applications is the username-password paradigm. For a user to be able to be authenticated, their details must be stored in some form of a database.
Implement a project that must be able to register a new user by storing their username and password details in a text file. Meanwhile, existing users must be authenticated by comparing their usernames with the corresponding password stored in the text file mentioned earlier.
Concepts: Console Input/Output, Text File Handling
Advanced: Storing passwords in their text-form is a security vulnerability. Implement some kind of hashing concept to protect passwords as well as the text-field that contains user data.
Python is a very powerful language and proves to be a useful tool for manipulating spreadsheets such as Excel workbooks. Implement a personal finance manager that keeps a record of all your transactions. Inputs given from the console must be stored in an Excel workbook according to the specific column. There are several libraries that help with reading and writing Excel files such as openpyxl, xlrd, pyexcel,etc.
Concepts: Console Input/Output, Data Structures, Excel Workbook Handling
Advanced: Perform basic data analysis on the data stored through the implementation of this project. This can include visualizing monthly expenditure or category-based spending.
Build your own Python dictionary program, which prompts a user to enter a word, and the program returns its meaning. Data of a dictionary exists as a 5MB JSON file that can be found here: Data JSON. The programmer should take care of case-sensitive user inputs. The jsonmodule will be required for working with the data file for this implementation.
Concepts: Console Input/Output, Data Structures, Library Usage
Advanced: Users may input an incorrectly spelled word or another word that is close to the one intended. The programmer can account for this using the difflibmodule. This would make a dictionary more user-friendly.
This project includes programming a Python logic for three in a row to win the tic-tac-toe game. Implement a 3x3 tic-tac-toe game board using a suitable data structure and allow a user to make their mark on this board. The program must then place its mark accordingly after checking the rows, columns, and diagonals. The objective of the program should be to win the game by placing three in a row before the user.
Concepts: Console Input/Output, Multi-Dimensional Data Structures, Conditional & Control Flow, Loops
Advanced: Implement a more user-friendly interface version of the game using the pygame library.
Python “Turtle” is a feature that lets the programmer draw over a board using a turtle through programming commands. The turtle module includes functions such as right() and left() to control the movement of the turtle and hence draw graphics on the screen. Implement various functions of the turtle module using loops and conditionals to draw graphics such as shapes and spirals on the screen.
Concepts: Graphics, Library Usage, Loops, Functions
Advanced: Implement the “Snake” game, arguably the most popular game using the Python turtle module.
Graphical User Interface - Calculator
Users prefer graphical interfaces rather than text based consoles for their applications. Hence, it is important to learn how to program GUIs with Python. Design a calculator GUI that implements the four basic operations – addition, subtraction, multiplication and division on two numbers. The GUI should include the numbers and operators as buttons. PyQt5 and Tkinter are the most popular libraries in Python for building graphical user interfaces.
Concepts: GUI Design, Library Usage, Functions
Advanced: Implement complex scientific functions similar to the default calculator applications available on mobile phones.
Therefore, the above seven python projects for beginners are helpful to introduce practical application through the Python programming language. Implementing these projects introduces important concepts such as file handling and GUI design to a beginner programmer. Running into bugs and problems and resolving them gives a new programmer further confidence with the programming language.